I. State structure

Like Russia, to become democratic, federative republic. (Democracy means uniting equal states. In the federative republic each state is independent, but together they are a whole. Each state governs itself). The Constituent Assembly chairs the government as well as the President elected at the will of the State Duma for a definite period. The President governs the people through ministers who are accountable to the State Duma and the Constituent Assembly. The deputies are elected in the nationwide, equal, direct and secret voting. Men and women are equal in their election rights, blood and religion do not affect the election rights. Only the State Duma is entitled to adopt laws. It is also entitled to check and control the Government and initiate interpellation. Only the State Duma is entitled to impose the state tax.

II. Autonomy

All Kazakh oblasts should be included into one autonomy, the latter will be the federative unit of the Russian Federation. Kazakhstan will unite with neighboring oblasts (regions) of Russia, if necessary. In case it is impossible, Kazakhstan will make up an autonomous unit with introduction of county councils in separate Kazakh provinces. The “Alash” Party set as one of its goals to introduce good governance in auls and volosts by selecting administrators from the candidates who truly wanted to work in the public interest. The party wanted to introduce the same principle regarding the workers of county councils and militia. The members of the “Alash” Party were the vocal supporters of justice, it always sided with those offended and disadvantaged. It was fully committed to lifting the level of culture of the population.

III. The basic rights of citizens

All ethnic groups are equal in rights (freedom of gathering, freedom of choice, freedom of association, freedom of speech, freedom of press, personal immunity) regardless of religion and sex. An arrest cannot be carried out on an out-of-court basis. In the places where there are judicial bodies, the charges are brought against those arrested within 24 hours. If there are no judicial bodies, the charges are brought within 7 days. Otherwise, those temporary detained will be set free immediately. Also, the immunity of private correspondence is introduced.

IV. Religion

The Church and the State are separate. All religions are equal in the eyes of the law, i.e. one religion does not take priority over other religions. Freedom of dissemination of religious teaching, freedom of religion. Establishment of the separate muftiat (eparchy) for Kazakhstan, separately from Tatars. Marriages, divorces, registration of births and deaths will remain under the jurisdiction of mullahs (churchmen). The judicial bodies are entitled to hear the cases associated with bride-money.

V. The courts

All citizens are equal before the law and protected by the law. The court and investigating bodies are established based on the traditions and way of life of the Kazakh people. The judicial proceedings are carried out in the language of the popular majority. The workers of the judicial establishments should know the language of the local population. The judges are appointed for the life term and enjoy great authority. The members of the jury should participate in big court proceedings. The courts in volosts and auls are governed by the common Kazakh law.

VI. Defense

The standing army should be replaced with people’s militia. They should be trained locally. The Kazakhs should serve in the army in the mounted militia.

VII. The taxes

As for taxes, the progressive income tax is collected.

VIII. The workers’ issue

The “Alash” Party routinely supports the program of Social Democrats (the Mensheviks).

IХ. The public education

The general free education in the native language is offered. Kazakhstan needs secondary and higher educational institutions in the Kazakh language. The educational sphere should be autonomous; education is optional. Kazakhstan needs to open libraries and reading rooms.

Х. The land issue

First of all, the indigenous population should settle in the Kazakh lands. Resettlement from outside the Kazakh lands should stop until the locals fully settle in their land. The unpopulated free land plots should be given to the local population. The local land committees determine the norms of land use depending on the quality of agriculturally used areas and agricultural sector. The excess land should be supervised by the local council fund. The fund will distribute the excess lands among landless agricultural laborers. In Turkestan, land plots are distributed among the local population along with water basins. All auls and settlements are equal in terms of distribution of land plots. Sale of agricultural land should be banned. The mountain resources are the state property, immediately supervised by the local governments. Strategically important forest lands and watersheds should be supervised by the government, smaller forest lands and watersheds – by local governments. The draft party program was drawn up by Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Akhmet Baitursynov, Mirzhakyp Dulatov, Yeldes Gumarov, Yesengali Turmagambetov, Gazymbek Birimzhanov.

“Kazakh” Newspaper, November 21, 1917 Alash and Alash Orda, K. Nurpeissov Almaty, 1995. p. 200—222.

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